Crisis management when a company is in financial difficulties is about quelling the understandable panic and taking a long, hard look at managing the business’ cash flow and the potential for action that makes the business viable.
Running out of cash is the cause of most business failures where the cash flow test of insolvency applies such that a company is insolvent if it is unable to meet its liabilities as and when they fall due. This doesn’t mean the business should be closed down but it does mean the directors should take clear steps to deal with the financial situation.
The first thing directors need to appreciate is that their primary consideration is to protect the interests of creditors rather than that of shareholders. This is where an insolvency or turnaround professional as an outsider can help by bringing an objective assessment of the personal risk when making decisions and the prospects that turnaround initiatives can be taken to restore the business to solvency.
Initial action by experienced turnaround professionals will focus on the short term cash flow while at the same time they will consider the medium and long term prospects for the business and whether the business model works or needs to be changed. This may be contrary to insolvency professionals who may be interested in justifying their appointment under a formal insolvency procedure.
Any review by professionals will consider how financial situation developed where it often the case that over time creditors have been stretched. Indeed, there are many reasons for the shortage of cash that often leads to a delay in paying suppliers whether this is due to a decline in sales, poor debt collection, bad debts, inadequate credit control, over trading, over stocking, funding investments and growth that doesn’t translate into sales or indeed myriad other reasons.
Guidance from the ICAEW (The Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales) is that at this stage:
Getting cost controls properly in place, insisting all purchases (however small) are signed off centrally by the managing director or finance director, chasing harder to collect outstanding debts, or agreeing new payment terms with creditors can have a quick impact and help ease an immediate crisis.
The most likely immediate priority in managing a liquidity crisis is reducing costs while maximising income.
So, the first step in managing cash is to construct a 13-week cash flow forecast to help identify risks and actions that can be taken to reduce them. It should include income from sales and other receipts and outgoings, both to ongoing obligations such as rent wages and finance and to creditors.
The business also needs to control cash on a daily basis, with payments made on a priority basis with purchases approved by an authorised person who is aware of their impact on cash flow.
This will avoid the risk of returned cheques. It is also advisable to talk to the bank and keep it aware of what is being done to keep things under control.
This is the first step in crisis management when a company is having financial difficulties, but thereafter a restructuring adviser can be invaluable in taking a long, hard look at the business operations, its processes and its business plan to identify areas where performance is weak or unprofitable and whether and how the company can be returned to profitability if these elements are removed.
Getting external and objective help is likely to be necessary and my guide to running a business in financial difficulties is a useful reference.