Creditors’ Voluntary Liquidation is a process by which the directors of an insolvent company can close it down in an orderly fashion without involving a court procedure. There are four tests of insolvency laid down in the Insolvency Act 1986.
Insolvency does not necessarily mean that a company should be closed down, but depends crucially on whether or not continuing to trade will enable the company to emerge from insolvency and will improve the position for creditors.
If the company does continue to trade, the directors should seek professional advice as they have a legal obligation to act in the best interests of the company’s creditors and if the company eventually does have to be closed down they will need documented proof of this or they risk becoming personally liable for the company’s debts.
The CVL procedure is defined by the 1986 Act and involves a board meeting at which the directors formally agree that the company should cease to trade. The next step is to seek shareholder consent. At least 75% of the shareholders must approve the directors’ proposal and at least 50% must approve the nominated liquidator. The shareholders may disagree and wish to appoint new directors to save the company.
Documents must be prepared including Statutory Information on the company, a history of the business, historical financial information of the company, deficiency account, a statement of affairs and a list of creditors.
A creditors’ meeting is also convened to confirm the nominated liquidator or appoint the creditors’ own nominee, who will need approval by at least 50% of the creditors. All nominated liquidators must be licensed insolvency practitioners who have provided consent to act, which must be available for inspection at the meeting.
The liquidator’s duties include dealing with assets which are normally sold, accessing creditors’ claims and distributing surplus cash to creditors following a strict order of legal priority. They must also investigate the accounts and activities of the company and in particular look at the transactions prior to the company being placed into liquidation. Having done this they report to the Insolvency Service on the conduct of the directors.
A CVL is a very efficient procedure with the liquidator taking over responsibility for dealing with creditors and closing down the company. It also demonstrates that the directors were responsible in carrying out their duties by closing down the company in an orderly manner when they believed it should cease to trade.